History of the American continent - USA history


History beginning with the Indians lasted a long long time ...

But, Ferocity of the Spanish people...

Moreover, The Indian peoples slaughter & seizure by Columbus.. and many barbaric acts of Columbus...

And further,

Indian slaughter & plunder by the Caucasian, those cruel acts that were repeated more than 100 years...

The United States of America which was performed the founding of a country of at the expense of other races!


The history of the Americas (North, South, and Central America, and the Caribbean) begins with people migrating to these areas from Asia during the height of an Ice Age. These groups are generally believed to have been isolated from peoples of the "Old World" until the coming of Europeans in the 10th and 15th centuries.

The ancestors of today's American Indigenous peoples were the Paleo-Indians; they were hunter-gatherers who migrated into North America. The most popular theory asserts that migrants came to the Americas via the Bering Land Bridge, Beringia, the land mass now covered by the cold ocean waters in the Bering Strait. Small lithic stage peoples followed megafauna like bison, mammoth (now extinct), and caribou, thus gaining the modern nickname "big-game hunters." Groups of people may also have traveled into North America on shelf or sheet ice along the northern Pacific coast.

Cultural traits brought by the first immigrants later evolved and spawned such cultures as Iroquois on North America and Piraha of South America. These cultures later developed into civilizations. In many cases, these cultures expanded at a later date than their Old World counterparts. Cultures that may be considered advanced or civilized include: Norte Chico, Cahokia, Zapotec, Toltec, Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Purepecha, Chimor, Mixtec, Moche, Mississippian, Puebloan, Totonac, Teotihuacan, Huastec people, Tarascan, Izapa, Mazatec, Muiscas, and the Inca.

Including of migration on the U.S. continent a specifics of Pareo-Indian's course.

The traditional theory has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska around 40,000 ~ 17,000 years ago, when sea levels were significantly lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation. These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America. Evidence of the latter would since have been covered by a sea level rise of a hundred meters following the last ice age.

Archaeologists contend that the Paleo-Indian migration out of Beringia (eastern Alaska), ranges from 40,000 to around 16,500 years ago. This time range is a hot source of debate. The few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000 ~ 13,000 years before present.

The American Journal of Human Genetics released an article in 2007 stating "Here we show, by using 86 complete mitochondrial genomes, that all Indigenous American haplogroups, including Haplogroup X (mtDNA), were part of a single founding population."Amerindian groups in the Bering Strait region exhibit perhaps the strongest DNA or mitochondrial DNA relations to Siberian peoples. The genetic diversity of Amerindian indigenous groups increase with distance from the assumed entry point into the Americas. Certain genetic diversity patterns from West to East suggest, particularly in South America, that migration proceeded first down the west coast, and then proceeded eastward. Geneticists have variously estimated that peoples of Asia and the Americas were part of the same population from 42,000 to 21,000 years ago.


Lithic stage (before 8000 BCE)
Obsidian projectile point from Puerta Parada, Guatemala.
See also: Paleo-Indians, Paleo-Indians period (Canada), and Archaeology of the Americas.

Archaic stage (8000 BCE ~ 1000 BCE)
See also: Pre-Columbian era and History of Mesoamerica (Paleo-Indian).

Several thousand years after the first migrations, the first complex civilizations arose as hunter-gatherers settled into semi-agricultural communities. Identifiable sedentary settlements began to emerge in the so-called Middle Archaic period around 6000 BCE. Particular archaeological cultures can be identified and easily classified throughout the Archaic period.
Mesoamerica, the Woodland Period, and Mississippian Culture (2000 BCE ~ 500 CE).
See also: Indigenous peoples of the Americas and List of pre-Columbian cultures.
After the decline of the Norte Chico civilization, several large, centralized civilizations developed in the Western Hemisphere: Chavin, Nazca, Moche, Huari, Quitus, Canaris, Chimu, Pachacamac, Tiahuanaco, Aymara and Inca in the Central Andes (Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia); Muisca in Colombia ; Tainos in Dominican Republic (Hispaniola, Espanola) and part of Caribbean; and the Olmecs, Maya, Toltecs, Mixtecs, Zapotecs, Aztecs and Purepecha in southern North America (Mexico, Guatemala).

Classic stage (800 CE ~ 1300 CE)


Cahokia

Oasisamerica
Pueblo people

The Pueblo people of what is now the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico, living conditions were that of large stone apartment like adobe structures. They live in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and possibly surrounding areas.

K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stela.

Aridoamerica
Chichimeca

Chichimeca was the name that the Mexica (Aztecs) generically applied to a wide range of semi-nomadic peoples who inhabited the north of modern-day Mexico, and carried the same sense as the European term "barbarian". The name was adopted with a pejorative tone by the Spaniards when referring especially to the semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples of northern Mexico.

Haudenosaune
Iroquois

Mesoamerica

Zapotec

The Zapotec emerged around 1500 years BCE. Their writing system influenced the later Olmec. They left behind the great city Monte Alban.


Olmec

The Olmec civilization emerged around 1200 BCE in Mesoamerica and ended around 400 BCE. Olmec art and concepts influenced surrounding cultures after their downfall. This civilization was thought to be the first in America to develop a writing system. After the Olmecs abandoned their cities for unknown reasons, the Maya, Zapotec and Teotihuacan arose.


Purepecha

The Purepecha civilization emerged around 1000 CE in Mesoamerica . They flourished from 1100 CE to 1530 CE. They continue to live on in the state of Michoacan. Fierce warriors, they were never conquered and in their glory years, successfully sealed off huge areas from Aztec domination.


Maya

Maya history spans 3,000 years. The Maya may have collapsed due to changing climate in the end of the 10th century.

Toltec

The Toltec were a nomadic people, dating from the 10th - 12th century, whose language was also spoken by the Aztecs.


Teotihuacan

Teotihuacan (4th century BCE - 7/8th century CE) was both a city, and an empire of the same name, which, at its zenith between 150 and the 5th century, covered most of Mesoamerica.

Aztec

The Aztec having started to build their empire around 14th century found their civilization abruptly ended by the Spanish conquistadors. They lived in Mesoamerica, and surrounding lands. Their capital city Tenochtitlan was one of the largest cities of all time.

South America

Norte Chico

The oldest known civilization of the Americas was established in the Norte Chico region of modern Peru. Complex society emerged in the group of coastal valleys, between 3000 and 1800 BCE. The Quipu, a distinctive recording device among Andean civilizations, apparently dates from the era of Norte Chico's prominence.


Chavin

The Chavin established a trade network and developed agriculture by as early as (or late compared to the Old World) 900 BCE according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavin in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters. Chavin civilization spanned from 900 BCE to 300 BCE.


Inca

Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tahuantinsuyu, or "the land of the four regions", in Quechua, the Inca culture was highly distinct and developed. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture. There is evidence of excellent metalwork and even successful trepanation of the skull in Inca civilization.

1492 year - Arrival of Columbus to U.S. ocean space
American ocean space for the first time by Christopher Columbus in 1492 year. It is the exploration project which had greatest influence in the history age at future generations.

October 11, 1492 year -- The San Salvador Island.
The Indian massacre by Columbus. And achieved a large slaughter, Columbus accomplished a hecatomb and sent an Indian to the own country as a slaves.

May, 1498 year -- Arrived at the fluviomarine of Orinoco River in Venezuela. Columbus insist "It's the Asia!" to the New continent.

1607 year - Landing of Caucasians, invasion start
1607 year -- The British settler founded the Virginia colony to Jamestown.

Etymology and Naming of“America”
Discovery of an American continent
History of the American continent

United States of America history



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discovery_of_the_Americas
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E3%83%99%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AA%E3%83%B3%E3%82%B0%E5%9C%B0%E5%B3%A1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beringia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_in_South_America
http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brev%C3%ADsima_relaci%C3%B3n_de_la_destrucci%C3%B3n_de_las_Indias

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahokia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%27inich_Kan_B%27alam_II

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Columbus




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